Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine specializing in the anatomy, function and diseases of the eye.

 

An Eye M.D. is an ophthalmologist, a medical or osteopathic doctor who specializes in eye and vision care. Eye M.D.s are specially trained to provide the full spectrum of eye care, from prescribing glasses and contact lenses to complex and delicate eye surgery. Many Eye M.D.s are also involved in scientific research into the causes and cures for eye diseases and vision problems.

 

Eye M.D.s are an essential part of the eye care team. For more on the eye care team and other eye-health information, visit GetEyeSmart.org.

 

The Indian surgeon Sushruta wrote Sushruta Samhita in Sanskrit in about 800 BC which describes 76 ocular diseases (of these 51 surgical) as well as several ophthalmological surgical instruments and techniques.[6][7] His description of cataract surgery was more akin to extracapsular lens extraction than to couching.[8] He has been described as the first cataract surgeon.[9][10]

Before Hippocrates

 

The pre-Hippocratics largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism.[11] They recognized the sclera and transparent cornea running flushly as the outer coating of the eye, with an inner layer with pupil, and a fluid at the centre. It was believed, by Alcamaeon and others, that this fluid was the medium of vision and flowed from the eye to the brain by a tube. Aristotle advanced such ideas with empiricism. He dissected the eyes of animals, and discovering three layers (not two), found that the fluid was of a constant consistency with the lens forming (or congealing) after death, and the surrounding layers were seen to be juxtaposed. He and his contemporaries further put forth the existence of three tubes leading from the eye, not one. One tube from each eye met within the skull.

 

 

 

Ophthalmology

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